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Coal"The different mine and waste water treatment stages include specific items of proprietary equipment which have been developed for and proven within a range of different industries for the treatment of waste waters and effluents."

Abrimix Mixer

The Abrimix Mixer is an in line unit which is able to achieve and maintain extremely high shear rates and particle on particle abrasion within the fluids and/or slurries that are passed through it. The unit is particularly effective at obtaining maximum utilisation of reagent additions and at speeding up solid – liquid interactions. It is also very effective at dispersing a gas into a slurry or liquid medium for the purposes of dissolving the gas or for creating suitably small micro bubbles (<30 micron) for the effective floatation of FOG and/or suspended solids.

Ultra Low Pressure Membranes

Miwatek has access to a family of Ultra-High-Flux (low pressure) membranes that exhibit high permeate flux rates at very low pressures without sacrificing either monovalent or divalent ion rejection rates. The membranes are custom rolled using a patented process to meet the needs of individual projects.

Otter Clarifier

The Otter clarifier is able to produce a high quality clarified product within less than a quarter of the foot print of a normal clarifier. In addition, it is virtually unaffected by rapid changes in the temperature of the feed liquor, the flow rate of the feed liquor, the concentration of the suspended solids or the specific gravity of the solids free liquor.

Extra Performance (EP) Mixer

The Extra Performance (EP) mixer is a simple in line static mixer which was developed to uniformly disperse a particularly small flow of a viscous but miscible additive into a much larger flow of a reasonably low viscosity fluid. Unlike most static mixers that are designed for mixing and blending, this unit disperses the additive across the whole cross section of the flowing medium, including the boundary region at the walls of the pipe. In addition, it will pass debris, stringy items and large suspended solids that are up to almost half the pipe diameter in size.

Microbiological Protection

The ultra-filtration (UF) stages utilise units which have been uniquely selected and arranged so as to resist the effects of any fugitive fuels, oils and greases (FOG) and to resist the effects of biological activity, whilst requiring the minimum of routine chemical cleaning. Their selection and their arrangement are designed to maximise the protection they afford to the RO membranes in relation to these same issues (FOG and biological activity). Typically, a 95% overall volumetric recovery is achieved within each UF stage.

Precipitation Reactors

The precipitation reactors are an array of stirred tank reactors which are operated in a cascade arrangement so as to maximise the degree of reaction completion for a given overall reactor residence time. Also, where it is either economically appropriate or technically important, the reactors are assisted by an appropriate integration of a suspended solids recycle (so as to exploit the underlying principles of the so called High Density Sludge (HDS) Process) and/or an Abrimix recycle loop (so as to provide some high intensity shearing where that would be beneficial).

These reactor details are able to create a closer approach to the theoretical end points within the various chemical reaction, precipitation and crystallisation steps than is achieved within a typical HDS Process whilst only requiring about one third of the reactor residence time. In addition, these reactors can achieve a final concentration of iron and manganese similar to what would be achieved by a typical HDS Process, but without the need for aeration equipment.

Caustic reactor

The caustic reactor utilises similar reaction enhancement principles to those within the Precipitation Reactors in order to convert the brine from the RO stage into gypsum and a dilute caustic solution. This caustic solution is suitable for use within the Precipitation Reactors so as to ensure that the reactor product has a much lower potential for scale formation when it is fed to RO membranes than would be the case if lime were used. The reduced potential for scale formation is able to be achieved for essentially the same reagent cost as lime rather than the much higher cost that would otherwise be associated with the purchase of caustic soda.

This reactor also facilitates an increase in the water recovery percentage of the plant without the need for additional RO stages. In many cases the reactor enables the overall process to have a zero requirement for brine disposal. The reactor is an essential component within the economic creation of residues from the Precipitation Reactors which can be introduced into major industries as part replacements for some of their raw materials.